Ozone experimental protocol

Since 1996, white clover has been used to monitor impacts (for example leaf damage, biomass reduction) of ambient ozone concentrations on crops according to a standardised protocol. In 2008, a new biomonitoring system was developed for ozone, using bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Since 2015, the bean biomonitoring system has been included in a wider experimental protocol for recording the presence/absence of ozone injury using the smart-phone App or online recording form, in combination with the establishment of “Ozone Gardens”.