Ozone experimental protocol

Since 1996, the ICP Vegetation has used white clover (Trifolium repens) to monitor impacts (for example leaf damage, biomass reduction) of ambient ozone concentrations on crops according to a standardised protocol. In 2008, a new biomonitoring system was developed for ozone, using French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Since 2015, the bean biomonitoring system has been included in a wider experimental protocol for recording the presence/absence of ozone injury using the smart-phone App or online recording form, in combination with the establishment of gardens of Sensitive Ozone Species ('SOS').