Examples of ozone damage in crops

 Agricultural – cereal

Ozone injury on wheat (cv. Njoro) Ozone injury on wheat (cv. Korongo) Ozone injury on wheat (cv. Eagle) 

a) Different levels of ozone injury on common wheat flag leaves


b) Ozone injury on durum wheat leaves


c) Different levels of ozone injury on f millet. Symptoms begin with leaf bronzing, with white stippling appearing after ~2 weeks of O3 exposure.


d) Different levels of ozone injury on pearl millet, showing leaf bronzing and necrotic patches.


e) Bronzing symptoms on rice leaves

Ozone damage on maize

f) Maize

Agricultural - non-cereal

Ozone damage on soybean          

g) Soybean                              h) Onion                                 i) Alfalfa                                     


j) Injury symptoms on different potato cultivars


k) Ozone injury on peas   


l) Ozone injury on common bean leaves (cv. Black Turtle)


m) Mung bean                                                  

Fruit crops

Ozone damage on tomato leaves  Ozone damage on grape leaves  Ozone damaged watermelon leaf

n) Tomato                                o) Grape                               p) Watermelon

Ozone damage in musk melon    Ozone damaged courgette leaf  Ozone injury on aubergine

q) Muskmelon                           r) Courgette                           s) Aubergine

Leaf salad crops

Ozone damage on lettuce  Ozone damage on spinach  

t) Lettuce                                    u) Spinach                            v) Chicory 


w) Yellow interveinal stippling on Swiss chard. As exposure symptoms worsen, necrotic patches appear on leaves.

Cooking herbs

Example of ozone injury on parsley Ozone injury on coriander

x) Parsley                                    y) Coriander

Photos courtesy of: (a) K. Sharps, Common wheat (Triticum aestivum); (b) R. Marzuoli, Durum wheat (Triticum durum); (c) K. Sharps, f millet (Eleusine coracana); (d) K. Sharps, Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum); (e) M. Frei, Rice (Oryza sativa); (f) D. Velissariou, Maize (Zea mays); (g) B. Gimeno, Soybean (Glycine max); (h) D. Velissariou, Onion (Allium cepa); (i) G. Mills, Alfalfa (Medicago sativa); (j) 1). H. Pleijel; 2). E. Calvo (cv. Agria) www.ozoneinjury.org; 3). E. Calvo (cv. Charlotte) www.ozoneinjury.org: Potato (Solanum tuberosum); (k) K. Sharps, Pea (Pisum sativum); (l) K. Sharps, Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, cv. Black Turtle); (m) K. Sharps, Mung bean (Vigna radiata); (n) V. Bermejo, Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum); (o) D. Velissariou, Grape (Vitis vinifera); (p) B. Gimeno, Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus); (q) D. Velissariou, Muskmelon (Cucumis melo); (r) D. Velissariou, Courgette (Cucurbita pepo); (s) G. Mills, Aubergine (Solanum melongena); (t) F. Hayes, Lettuce (Lactuca sativa); (u) E. Calvo, Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) www.ozoneinjury.org; (v) D. Velissariou, Chicory (Cichorium intybus); (w) 1). I. Fernandez Gonzalez; 2&3). E. Calvo: Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cycla ); (x) D. Velissariou, Parsley (Petroselinum crispum); (y) F. Hayes, Coriander (Coriandrum sativum).

Notes: Potato images from E. Calvo (CEAM) were from an experiment testing the ozone effects on 8 potato cultivars. Some results were presented at the 22nd Task Force Meeting of the ICP Vegetation at Braunschweing, Germany. Ref: Calvo, E., Marco, F., Martin, C., Calatayud, V. & Sanz, M.J. (2009) Comparative ozone sensitivity of eight potato cultivars.

For more information on the effects of ozone on spinach and swiss chard, see the following recently published paper:

González-Fernández, I., Elvira, S., Calatayud, V., Calvo, E., Aparicio, P., Sánchez, M., Alonso, R. & Bermejo Bermejo, V. (2016) Ozone effects on the physiology and marketable biomass of leafy vegetables under Mediterranean conditions : Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cycla). Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 235:215–228. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2016.10.023

For more information on the effects of ozone on durum wheat, the following papers:

Gerosa, G., Marzuoli, R., Finco, A., Monga, R., Fusaro, I. & Faoro, F. (2014) Contrasting effects of water salinity and ozone concentration on two cultivars of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) in Mediterranean conditions. Environmental Pollution, 193: 13-21.

Monga, R., Marzuoli, R., Alonso, R., Bermejo, V., Gonzalez-Fernandez, I., Faoro F. & Gerosa, G. (2015) Varietal screening of ozone sensitivity in Mediterranean durum wheat (Triticum durum, Desf.). Atmospheric Environment, 110: 18-26. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.03.04

Picchi, V., Monga, R., Marzuoli, R., Gerosa, G. & Faoro, F. (2017) Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 112: 261-269.